Kisah Hiu Martil tanpa Sirip di Raja Ampat

Sebagaimana dikisahkan dan ditulis oleh Kresna Astraatmadja. @KresnaAstra

November-Desember 2012, saya berkunjung ke beberapa tempat diving. Selayar, Takabonerate, Bali, Wakatobi, Raja Ampat dan berakhir di Komodo. Hingga selesai di Tomia, Wakatobi, tidak seekor hiu yang saya lihat, termasuk di suatu situs di Wangi-wangi yang konon selalu ada segerombolan hiu. Akhirnya saya pun melihat hiu di Raja Ampat. Hiu martil dan hiu-hiu lainnya. Inilah hiu martil pertama yang saya lihat. Ironisnya, mereka sudah tidak bersirip. Mati. Tergeletak, terendam air di sekitar pantai. Di pantai di belakang gubuk, bergeletakan puluhan sirip kering dan dagingnya.

Dua nelayan setempat mengaku memancingnya dengan puluhan kait pada tali sepanjang 1000 meter. Mereka mengizinkan saya memotret, bahkan menjawab beberapa pertanyaan saya tanpa rasa bersalah. Ada pembeli yang menampung sirip-sirip itu di Sorong seharga satu sampai satu setengah juta sekilonya. Dari Sorong, entah ke mana lagi. Mereka pun bercerita bagaimana cara memancingnya, apa umpannya dan lain sebagainya. Salah seorang berkata bahwa hiu sirip putih (white tip) berharga lebih mahal. Tapi hiu jenis ini sudah jarang mereka dapatkan. Sudah lama menghilang, begitu katanya.

Saya perlihatkan foto-foto yang saya ambil kepada beberapa penyelam. Mereka kaget. Terutama karena aksi ini dilakukan di tempat yang dilindungi, di Raja Ampat. Mereka membayar 250,000 rupiah (500,000 untuk orang asing) untuk masuk ke kawasan ini. Mereka pun mempertanyakan untuk apa pungutan itu bila penangkapan hiu masih terjadi di Raja Ampat. Bukankah uang itu seharusnya untuk membantu konservasi, termasuk hiu.
Sulit bagi saya untuk mengutuk dua nelayan setempat yang cuma memakai jukung bermotor 40 pk. Mereka hanya rantai terakhir dari perburuan hiu. Keuntungan mereka tak seberapa dibanding penampung di Sorong, pembeli entah di mana dan juga pengusaha restoran. Apalagi dibandingkan dengan kapal besar penangkap hiu yang dapat menjaring ratusan dalam seharinya. Tetapi, saya kira ada banyak nelayan seperti ini di Raja Ampat saja atau di tempat lain.
Seorang penyelam asing cukup gusar melihat foto-foto tersebut. Ia katakan bahwa jika hiu-hiu itu hidup, akan lebih banyak keuntungan yang didapat. Hiu merupakan salah satu tanda perairan yang sehat. Bila makin banyak hiu, tentu akan makin sehat. Tentunya akan makin banyak penyelam yang datang. Para penyelam membawa devisa yang tentunya akan memajukan daerah, seharusnya juga memajukan kehidupan penduduk setempat.
Tapi apa betul penduduk setempat mendapat keuntungan dari para penyelam? Seberapa banyak penduduk yang mendapatkan keuntungan dari penyelam? Dan dari hiu yang hidup? Berapa banyak dari mereka yang menjadi penyelam? Menjadi pemandu selam? Yang bekerja di resor penyelaman? Atau yang memiliki usaha penyelaman?
Adakah mereka tahu betapa nikmatnya menyelam? Adakah mereka tahu betapa indah terumbu dan ikan-ikan, termasuk hiu, yang berseliweran?

Apakah persoalan selesai dengan, misalnya, menangkap nelayan-nelayan lokal seperti dua orang yang saya temui itu? Rasanya, jalan masih panjang.
Begitulah kisah hiu martil tanpa sirip. Hiu martil pertama yang pernah saya lihat. Semoga saya masih bisa melihatnya hidup dan berenang bebas.

Sebagaimana dikisahkan dan ditulis oleh Kresna Astraatmadja


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